Petroleum App Notes

Heavy Fuel Oil (also "bunker oil" or "residual fuel oil") is a complex mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons formed as the remnant of distillation and cracking processes. Often used by the shipping industry, heavy fuel oils have becoming more regulated for lower sulfur content. 

Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography paired with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry and multiple ionization modes can provide a full characterization of the volatile and semi-volatile compounds in this complex mixture.

Petroleum Forensics is the art of tracing the geochemistry of crude oil using petroleum biomarkers. Chemical biomarkers that are resistant to weathering and other forms of degradation ("molecular fossils") are crucial for differentiating the various sources.

Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography can help characterize crude oil by assessing volatile and semi-volatile portions of petroleum samples to isolate and identify chemical biomarkers.

Peak tailing and internal standard reproducibility often make quantitative analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) particularly challenging. The addition of a complex matrix only makes experiments even more problematic.

Using a combination of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) and high performance time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) found in the LECO Pegasus BT 4D, PAHs are separated from matrix interferences using both orthogonal column phase selectivity and additional extracted ion mass precision.

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